This page discusses interactions of drugs with the eyes and the vision. This is not intended to be a complete catalog of all possible ocular side effects from different medications. Instead, it lists common ocular side effects, or those which deserve special mention. Just because a drug is not listed here does not mean that it does not have any possible ocular side effects. Included are over-the-counter medications and prescription medications. These sections are not intended to replace the professional examination and diagnosis by a physician, and they are presented here purely for informational purposes. All possible diagnoses and treatment options are not covered, and the information discussed should not be taken as a recommendation to self-diagnose and self-treat a condition. A misdiagnosed or improperly treated eye condition can result in a permanent loss of vision, or a permanent loss of function of the eye or visual system. Besides female sex, advancing age is the biggest risk factor for breast cancer. Reproductive factors that increase exposure to endogenous estrogen, such as early menarche and late menopause, increase risk, as does the use of combination estrogen-progesterone hormones after menopause. Nulliparity and alcohol consumption also are associated with increased risk. Women with a family history or personal history of invasive breast cancer, ductal carcinoma , or a history of breast biopsies that show benign proliferative disease have an increased risk of breast cancer.[1-4] Increased breast density is associated with increased risk. It is often a heritable trait but is also seen more frequently in nulliparous women, women whose first pregnancy occurs late in life, and women who use postmenopausal hormones and alcohol. Exposure to ionizing radiation, especially during puberty or young adulthood, and the inheritance of detrimental genetic mutations increase breast cancer risk. Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Breast Cancer Screening; Breast Cancer Treatment; Male Breast Cancer Treatment; Breast Cancer Treatment During Pregnancy; and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available.
Tamoxifen Indications. Tamoxifen is the drug of choice for women with metastasizing-breast cancer if they produce one of the following requirements estrogen receptor-positive primary tumour rebound at the earliest 2 years after diagnosis independent of the age of the patient General contraindications all indications Tamoxifen should not be used in the following • Pregnancy. Pre-menopausal patients must be carefully examined before treatment for all indications to exclude the possibility of pregnancy see also section 4.6.